Annual: 2019

AS001 »
📁Other: Controls and Dashboards
👤Luis Fernando Aljure Munoz
📅Oct 03, 2019
Regional Final


👀 1544   💬 2



This is a project development based on 'Inverse Thermodynamics Technology' taking advantage of Hilsch Tube efficiency to design a levitation vehicle control. According to this technology, a few small pressure vessels (air tanks) are enough to produce high rotating kinethic energy that makes the vehicle levitate and move forward.

The use of a high speed FPGA is imperative to keep track of all physical varibles involved in the process to synchronize and control the mechanism of the vehicle. A dashboard display is implemented to gather all sensor variables and control information.

Demo Video

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  • Project Proposal

    1. High-level Project Description


      A surface is represented with a real mathematical function fmr z = f(x,y). Since a vectorial camp is represented by the 3 space coordinates, it is necesary to transform the fmr of 2 variables:  z = f(x,y) in a function of 3 variables: f(x,y) z = 0. The next code block declares and use the function k(x,y) to obtain the gradient vector of a soft curve defined inside a space region. Observe how the function k(x,y) does not contain other variables than x or y, it is important to recall that it is not possible to derivate terms with other program variables, this is why a constant real variable was declare with value c=0.3947 and was added to the height of the vector representing the lines of the gradient vectorial camp.



      In fluids  dynamics a vectorial camp is used to represent the movement of fluids and the movement of object through fluids. The next code block shows the declaration of a vectorial camp that represents the closed turbulent fluid or vortex of angular velocity w=0.5.



      A fluid moving gets kinetic energy. The kinetic energy has a great utility in engineering because represents the opposite force of gravity, this means, it represents the repulsion force. The image shows the fmr of a fluid vortex. To find the gradient vectorial camp of a function z=f(x,y) the 3 functions f,g y h that represent the derivates of x,y and z must be constructed. The next code block shows a function very near to the function z=f(x,y) of a fluid vortex.

      The image shows an XY plane view of the surface and the camp lines.



      Earth’s weather is ruled by the air and the sea water that flow due to the temperature flow around the planet; Some of these phenomena are standard during season’s cycle and some other are an exception like huracanes and tropic area sudden frost. Huracane events have low probability but it occurs and often it is caused by other climate phenomena. In 2017 huracan IRMA reached  level 5 with wind flow of 300 Km an hour. That magnitude was never registered before and it was called the highest registered in the Atlantic ocean. This phenomenon was caused by the detachedment of an enormous iceberg from south pole, such event changed the map of the pole.

      the remanent icebergs started moving toward north pole and meanwhile it melted cooling sea water and causing very unusual weather event specially in south America. Inside the tropic lines the season had the highest number of huracanes registered, 9 totally. The next picture shows how wind and sea water flowings converge inside huracan IRMA eye. The blue lines represent the cold sea water flow and the red lines represent the warm wind flow.

      A huracan is represented by a tridimentional vortex. The next image shows each vectorial camp of a vortex (left) and antivortex (right). Both vectorial camps come from the same tridimentional surface but the vortex has negative direction along X axis of rotation and the antivortex has negative direction along Z axis of rotation.

      Climate study describes how each vortex and antivortex vectorial camp cancel eachother. The next code block declares the vectorial camp of an antivortex from the function k(x,y,z). It is commun logical to think that both vectorial camps conform the huracan but one of them represent the wind flow and the other represent the inverse thermal flow.



      Temperature flow is almost imperceptible, this is important to comprehend in climate study and wind flow: The vortices are created and destroyed in presence of antivortices. This means that a vortex and an antivortex cancel eachother but the vortex represents straightforward thermal flow and the antivortex represents inverse thermal flow.


      Entomologist Viktor Grebennikov discovered levitation properties and invisibility in insects. Without any mathematical development, nature showed him some important characteristics of vorticity. The picture above shows the platform used by him to levitate. The top part is a Ranque-Hilsch tube, this mastil let the air flow through causing high speed rotating kinetic energy and allows straightforward thermal flow and inverse thermal flow too. The great temperature difference maintained across the mastil extremes produces high efficiency energy that cancel gravity through fluid kinetic energy. The platform inset on the base has the form of the vorticity tridimentional vectorial camp.

      The next code block shows the declaration of a function k(x,y) that represents the gradiente vectorial camp of inverse thermal flow that Viktor Grebennikov used for his platform to levitate. The kinetic energy produced by the machine was enough to cancel gravity force and the work W made by the thermal flow could alter time flow too.



      The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube is a system that represents a great efficiency machine. To know how much of the feed is converted to cold air we can use entalphy and finding entropy will tell us how much radial transfer of angular momentum can be obtained from a vessel containing air at room temperature 25°C.

      In general, any flow process of electricity or temperature or any other physical flow like air, gas or liquid, has low efficiency but since the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube has 2 thermal vortex (one straightforward and one inverse) the efficiency obtained by this mechanism is very high. In this case the compressed air expand inside the chamber and the vortex tube, acquires high velocity. A vortex flow is created in the chamber and air flows in spiral motion along the periphery of the hot side of the vortex tube. Then the rotating air is forced down the inner walls of the hot tube at speeds reaching 1 million rpm. According to the second law of thermodynamics heat Q flows from hot places to cold places but never flows expontaneously from cold places to hot places, since the inner vortex is violating thermodynamics second law it is called an inverse thermodynamic process, work W of this process is positive and added to the work of the first vortex and like this is transfered efficiently a great amount of angular momentum to anything that holds the vortex tube. Straight work is W=(Qh Qc) and inverse work is W=-(Qc Qh).

      An Efficient Vortex Tube With Max C.O.P
      Coherent Transport of Angular Momentum The Ranque–Hilsch Tube as a Paradigm
      Design and Performance Evaluation of a Vortex Tube form by Copper Material

      When the Grebennikov platform is studied we observe that the mastil tube has an inferior  nozzle very flat, this nozzle lets the air flow out and the inverse heat flow in.

      The inset on the levitating platform base was developed by Grebennikov when he studied some insect’s levitating wings under microscope, funny as it seems the inset activates the inverse thermal flow through causing a lot of kinetic energy enough to cancel gravity force and levitate. The next image shows an antique interplanetary vehicle documented by one of the first chinese dynasties.

      The ship mastil is a very big Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, the compress air inside the vessels is pushed into the vortex tube rotating very fast to make the ship rotate and levitate. The mechanism where the compress air is injected into the mastil is called a flow distributor and it is synchronized to a joystick control. The artifact documented by the Ramayan for the Vimanas very long ago clearly shows it’s mechanical system. The next picture shows the flow distributor of the antique interplanetary spaceship.

      The enormous capacity of accumulating kinetic energy with just a few pounds of compressed gas is due to the high efficiency of the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, the next project offers a better comprehension of how the spaceship works.

      This project is designed to escape from Earth gravity without combustion. To do so, it was necessary to convert the antique interplanetary spaceship distributor into a robust distribution mechanism able to inject with force the fluid into the mastil. The new model is secure and powerful using the recovery force of 5 springs to synchronized inject the fluid into the mastil. Each one of the 5 injectors is capable of working independently and can be programmed through an FPGA schematic safety. Each injector system is conformed by a vessel, a regulator, a recolection chamber, a piston and a spring to control the flow through the mastil. The air inside a vessel is slowly collected inside the chamber and injected with force and speed into the mastil, when the fluid expands inside the mastil, it moves up and heats with hundread thousands revolutions generating friction to the corrugated walls of the mastil. When it reaches the top of the mastil it inverts direction and starts cooling down until it reaches the ground where it is accumulated again and used to impulse the levitating spaceship. Since the ship accumulates a very high amount of kinetic energy, this amount is transmitted to the fluid jet used to generate impulse.
      The fluid in the mastil rotates generating angular momentum, the effect is a very high radial transfer of angular momentum to the ship. The next image shows how a rotating mass m with inertial momentum p generates an angular momentum L
      = rxp.

      To understand how can kinetic energy make the ship levitate you can imagine a tripulated shuttle traveling up from Earth to the sky. The secret of the launch is the velocity needed to escape from gravity this way the shuttle can produce the linear momentum needed p = m*v  using combustion. The same way an angular momentum is needed to cancel gravity and make levitate the disk ship. The ship needs to reach specific angular velocity to produce enough angular momentum. When a gyroscope is rotating at high speed an amount of force F is needed to rotate the angular momentum plane,  if the force needed is greater than gravity force then the disk will avoid gravity force levitating in it’s place.  In 2014 Derek Muller recorded a video showing an antigravity 20 kg disk experiment. Watch the video

      Image by SSSCCC/Shutterstock.

      We know by Einstein that high speed dilates the rate of time of a spaceship, this includes not only linear kinetic energy but rotating kinetic energy as well and this fact turns in favour of the travelers inside the spaceship becase it reduces voyage duration. There is a great advantage to implement this project to try to reach the goal of conquer interplanetary travelling. Mankind has been trying to take a man to Mars since 1960 but with combustion technology everything turns against travelers and a great disappointment brings such plan when the possibility of returning to Earth is almost impossible.
      The hope humanity needs to acchive this goal keeps intact when we introduce this new inverse thermodynamic technology to improve interplanetary spaceships efficiency to go there, land and comeback using just a few gas vessels to levitate and travel at a very high speed, higher than rocket capsules. Due to the extreme rotating kinetic energy that can reach this spaceship a voyage of 8 months to Mars can be reduced including time rate inside the ship; This means that even if the spaceship takes a few months to complete the travel, inside the spaceship travelers will experiment a great time slip and reduction of time travel according to relativity. Less time travelling and less supplies needed for the journey are great advantages for survival.

    2. Block Diagram




    To control cockpit environment a few sensors are needed and some others are needed to control rotation and movements of the spaceship. For this purpose the dashboard will show the next variables: Temperature, Humidity, CO2, Pressure, Ultraviolet radiation levels, Magnetometer, Accelerometer, Gyroscope, GPS instrument. The picture above shows the main board OPENVINO Starter Kit and multisensor modules used to read environment variables.

    Project diagram.

    The board NCB1VGA16 is used to interface the sensor modules, VGA display and keyboard. The NCB1VGA16 board has a GPIO port compatible with Altera boards.



    3. Intel FPGA virtues in Your Project




    Each sensor module communicates with the main FPGA using a VHDL component and the NCB1VGA16 board is used to manage video and human interface components. It also gives power to the sensor modules. The powerful OPENVINO Starter Kit will be the brain of the project connecting all components.



    4. Design Introduction




    This compact module is able to calculate the tridimensional vectors of acceleration, gyroscope and magnetic field. Each camp has 3 values corresponding to x axis, y axis and z axis. In total 9 values of 16 bits each can be read from the module IC.




    This curious module is capable of sensing the amont of UVA rays and UVB rays, 4 variables can be read from the module IC to calculate 16 bits variables of UVA and UVB.




    This compact module has 3 IC components, A) SI7021 component calculates the relative himidity and temperature . B) CCS811 component is able to calculate the eCO2 and TVOC (Total Volatile Organic Compounds).




    This accurate module is used to read GPS satellite information to calculate the Global Position Latitude and Longitude, This module has many features that can be used by vehicles to navigate across the world.

    All this data variables are important in every vehicle. Planes, boats and automoviles take advantage of physics variables when traveling. Intelligent Secure Systems decide through physics equations. In a sealed vehicle’s cockpit the pressure is maintained using a pressure sensor; In space travelers life depend on quality of air, temperature, pressure and ultraviolet rays block. Owr set has all this variables included to preserve occupants life. To travel we may need to follow some coordinates so Earth’s latitude and longitude helps to guide owr vehicle and take a short path to owr destination. For this matter GPS signals make owr travel safe and efficient.

    First all sensors IC’s must be read via I2C and the data converted from binary to BCD to refresh the dashboard every second with the physics variables. Instead of verilog this project uses C language to prepare the variables because some formulas requiere difficult calculations and a high level language makes the hard work easier.


    An Arduino Pro Micro is programmed to read all I2C sensors data and apply the formulas requiered to understand the results when reading the sensors then all the information will be trasfered to the fpga using a serial interface. The NCB1 board will provide power to all sensors and a place on top of the board.



    The Next image shows the project boards, the monitor is showing all the variables. The black square shows the north pointed by a virtual needle.





    5. Function Description



    The picture shows the main features of the spaceship:

    1. DASHBOARD: This screen shows to the pilot the status of the cockpit and the ship navigation.

    2. CONTROL: This instrument tells the ship when to accelerate rotation.

    3. NAVIGATION CAMERA: This mechanism refresh the image sychronized to the angle of rotation, so it bliks every 360 degrees to point to the navigation direction.

    4. C5P BOARD: This is the main board of the ship, it controls video dashboard and the rotation mechanism of the ship.

    5. NCB VGA16: This is the video board, it powers up all the sensor modules.

    6. RANQUE-HILSCH MASTIL: This component takes advantage of the inverse thermodynamic technology to provide the ship with enough angular moment.

    7. AIR VESSELS: This vessels contain the gas that animate the ship, warm up the cockpit and provides of breathable atmosphere to the passengers.

    8. PRESSURE DEPOSIT: This component of the ship receives all the used air from the mastil, the mechanism creates pressure when the mastil pushes the air into the deposit.

    9. PROPULSION NOZZLE: This nozzles are used to push the ship in space, the nozzle jets take advantage of the deposit’s pressure and the centrifugal acceleration of the ship to impulse with a great force the air toward outside the ship.

    This picture shows all the Dashboard features, many other variables can be obtained from the GPS when the vehicle is moving. The needle in the black square of the dashboard is pointing to the magnetic north. Other graphic features can be added to the dashboard panel.


    6. Performance Parameters



    To be able to control the vehicle all those physical variables need to be refresh at least once or twice a second, this way the navigation system of the ship can alert and prevent crashes, damages and correct not safe life conditions. Even faster refresh rate optimize the intelligence of the system, that is why a secondary controller IC is added to the NCB VGA16 BOARD, this is an ARDUINO PRO MICRO ATMega32U4 integrated circuit, the advantage of this IC is the high level programming language used to configure it.


    7. Design Architecture



    This is the schematic of the NCB VGA16. Three clocks are used 200Mhz, 50Mhz and 24Mhz for video management and data converters of the instruments.

    The main module is VGA receives the data of the instruments from the module called VGAMEM and this component takes the converted data from the module called UART, this last component receives the instruments information via uart from the high language component ATMega.



    Mandy Lei
    Wonderful work! Looking forward to your final work!
    🕒 Jun 26, 2019 03:46 AM
    Luis Aljure
    Thank you Mandy.
    🕒 Jun 26, 2019 08:54 AM

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